Pages: 23— Pages: 29— Pages: 37— Pages: 51— Pages: 57— Pages: 61— Pages: 65— Pages: 69— Pages: 79— Pages: 85— Pages: 89— Chronicle is composed of images of documents from Johann Sebastian Bach's life, musical performances in historic locations, and a few fictionalized scenesall held together by a voice-over narration by his second wife, Anna Magdalena Bach. The film begins with Bach's tenure as Capellmeister at the court of Anhalt-Cthen, where he and Anna Magdalena met, and ends with her description of his final illness and death.
Research on the documents concerning Bach's life also brought the filmmakers into contact with Heinrich Bll, whose work forms the basis for their first two finished films. And finally, the struggle to make the film, involving as it did the rallying of colleagues from various countries, reveals the political nature of filmmaking in Europe in the late s. In this period, the formal difficulty of the film was taken as an aspect of its revolutionary value, something that became less and less possible from the s onward. Straub traces his own beginnings as a film director to the Bach project.
He at first suggested that Bresson make it but was told he should make it himself, since it was his project. Thus Straub began his path toward directing his own films "as one falls into a trap. Another pretext: it's a documentary. A third: it can't be an audience success. What is piquant is that this last pretext comes from the North-Rhine Westfalian 'Kultusministerium' [Ministry of Culture] which subsidizes precisely films on music. But the search for financing delayed the film another eight years, with two films intervening.
A representative of the Pallas film company in Frankfurt who had been ready to support the film met with a car accident. Straub said that he had met Bll in Paris when he had been looking for someone to consult about the language in the Bach screenplay. Bll's advice had been to leave the antiquated German exactly as it was except for a few minor changes such as the more comprehensible phrase "to appeal" in place of "vozieret. Because of the availability of funding, two such films preceded the completion of the Bach project: Machorka-Muff , based on Bll's political satire "Bonn Diary"; and Not Reconciled , based on the novel Billiards at Half Past Nine.
The months before the actual shooting began in August were a battle of nerves. The Kuratorium at first rejected the application for production support, prompting supporters of the project to create the Verein Filmkunstfonds e. V to raise money through "shares" of at first DM 1, and later DM Film stock was purchased, with additional footage ordered in reserve, and contracts were signed with Music House Filmund Fernseh-GmbH, which carried musicians' expenses and Straub's salary while the additional financing was still uncertain. Despite the film's artistic success and its invitation to festivals such as those at Berlin and Cannes, the West German film bureaucracy was unmoved.
In the summer of , the Filmbewertungsstelle Wiesbaden refused to assign any tax-reducing quality rating to the filmneither "besonders wertvoll" excellent nor simply "wertvoll" good. When asked about his strategy for making a film about such a major German cultural icon, Straub has claimed that he had been initially unaware that Bach was viewed as such and had begun his work with a blithe lack of prejudice, with the navet of a child. Finally Straub had come to the conclusion that people "consciously wanted to obstruct the film, to prevent Bach's music from getting into the movie theaters.
This music had to stay in the concert halls. For instance, he noted that Bach was relatively unknown in Germany and connected the Bach project to the political struggles around the Bll films by calling it "yet another film about the unresolved German past. Courtesy New Yorker Films. Kafka's guardians of the LawStraub raised the polemical stakes, saying the film was dedicated to the Viet Cong, with whose struggles against overwhelming opposition he could identify. Straub had left France for Germany in rather than be inducted into the army for the Algerian War and had traveled with very little money through both West Germany and the GDR in search of locations and documents for the Bach film.
Of this period, Straub reported, "Danile accompanied me now and then and in between went to Paris to get some money. The Thomaskirche in Leipzig was altered by an organ in a horrible neo-Gothic style. The choice of location is never arbitrary and has indeed preceded the screenplays in some instances. The films then explore the physical traces of history that human activity leaves behind and confront these spaces with texts or musical pieces.
Another primary goal, from a musical point of view, was to get away from "romantic performance practice. For instance, they were told that it was out of the question that anyone would ever play a natural trumpet again. But as Straub noted with some pride in , "In the meantime they've managed it, not without some impetus from my film project, which could almost have been realized in The live recording of uninterrupted performances also goes against industry practice.
SRH Hochschule Berlin, OTA
Straub saw this as an attempt to restore integrity to the musical structures that are so often totally shattered by the power of the cinema to reconstruct them. We know that nowadays musical recordings are made of a thousand pieces. One simply edits a musical movement, which after all should be a whole, and always was in concert up until the invention and development of sound recording technology; a movement begins and is played to the end.
It has a tension from A to Z. Music always consists of following a thought to its conclusion, and that applies to its reproduction as well. So something had to be done to counter the violent habits of current recording techniques, and I hope with this film I have done something in that regard. They do not make arbitrary cuts in the musical pieces they use in their films but rather seek to make cuts that are cinematically motivated and musically defensible.
It is the refusal to be "recognizable as cinema. Furthermore, although Turim does relate her formal analysis to questions of narrative and cinematic space, there is more to be said in. Turim compares the shock of this realization of Anna Magdalena Bach's placement in space to the total lack of spatial orientation for the first image of her in the film, shot 2, an explosively short diagonal close-up with no solid connection to the spaces preceding and following it.
The powerful effect Turim describes here is the revelation that there is more continuity in the physical space than the cinematic form had implied. She contrasts this with the later scene in which Bach forcibly replaces the leader of the boys' choir in the middle of a performance shots This is one of the very few scenes actually acted out in the film. It is also the longest sustained dramatic sequence, since it begins with Bach's entreaty of the governing superintendent of the Thomasschule to take his side in a dispute with the Rector over who is to be in charge of instruction shot 62 and extends to the two shots of Bach supervising the choirboys at a meal in the refectory, where it becomes clear the boys have had to obey the Rector and Bach has been defeated shot In contrast to the scene of Anna Magdalena and Sebastian above, Turim emphasizes that the cinematic codes here imply a greater spatial and temporal.
The Rector's return to confront Bach in shot 65 seems to follow his exit in shot 64 immediately. The stairway on which the first confrontation takes place a favorite location since German expressionism seems to be contiguous with the doorway to which the Rector returns, and the musical performance seems to have just ended, yet the viewer realizes with a shock that the time of the events must be appreciably later. The accompaniment of this drama by the Kyrie is indeed a juxtaposition of the sacred with the profane. Because the music is performed with such seriousness and without interruption over the dispute, the sincerity of the religious expression and the artistic passion are not doubted.
But at the same time, the film insists on stressing the material basis on which such work rested: As Bach's position is being threatened, we hear the only composition in the film by another composer, Leone Leoni. In the first instance, the shocking revelation that Anna. The discontinuity persists, as Turim observes, because her motion does not begin before the cut.
However, the motion is anticipated by the fact that she looks up halfway through the shot, toward the window we see in the next shot. But greater continuity of motion from shot to shot would not only mitigate the shock of intimacy, the motion itself would lose some of its meaning, since it would partly be subordinated to the cinematic narration. This intimacy is underscored by the way in which Anna Magdalena lightly strokes her hand across her husband's back as she walks past him.
She continues to look out the window, as we only now realize this was the object of her gaze, and walks in a graceful arc around Sebastian and turns toward him again as she sits on the window seat. The indication of a physical bond is thus couched within her simple motion across the frame, as her gaze has moved from inward. Since they do not touch in any other shot of the film, this juxtaposition of physical closeness and visual discontinuity is a striking gesture in the film.
The significance gained by gesture and other movement within shots is thus a result of their separateness and autonomy. This, in the realm of mise-en-scne, corresponds to the "counterpoint" Turim describes between shots. Camera movement, for instance, which critics have sometimes insisted is not even there, creates a striking pattern. All but two of the pans and tilts are over two-dimensional graphic. The two pans thus become significant in themselves: the first pans from Gustav Leonhardt's hands on a double keyboard up to his face as he reads the music; the second pans along the ceiling from one side of the Apollosaal in the Berlin Opera to the other.
One could argue that the pans and tilts on the "documents" correspond to the viewer's act of reading, which at some times corresponds to the "reading" by the narrator or by the musical performers.
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The rarity of a pan across a three-dimensional space challenges the. Counterbalancing the pans, tilts, and rhythmic cuts between what Turim calls the "graphic inserts" in the film are the long diagonal shots of the musical performances, sometimes containing a track in or out at a carefully selected moment. If the pans and tilts call attention to the kind of reading one does in a film, the tracking shots investigate the camera's and the viewer's relation to space.
As Turim puts it, some of these shots could be seen as a dissertation on the effect of camera movement itself. The range of sound includes complex music, the voice on-screen, offscreen, or voice-over , and silence. The visual spectrum is similarly broad: the twodimensional flatness of manuscripts and engravings, intricate and rich images of baroque organ lofts, performers' wigs and instruments; punctuating images of trees against a sky with clouds, waves striking against a stony shore, an expressionist sunrise by Rouault, or simply black film.
As we shall see in regard to the formal analysis of History Lessons , there is a narrative context that forms part of the counterpoint as well. Rhythm and temporality are pleasurably explored in cinematic terms, but in the process, issues of memory, emotion, and cultural meaning are raised as well. An example of this intersection between narrative and form exists in a sequence from the film that corresponds to an anecdote in Meynell's Little Chronicle. Meynell recounts the story of a cask of wine received as a gift from Bach's cousin, who lived too far away to visit regularly in person.
The incident has a humorous cast, since the frugal Bach was required to pay a good deal in shipping expenses to accept the cask, which turned out to be almost half-empty. Calculating the cost of the wine on this basis, Bach wrote to the cousin asking not to receive any more such gifts. The humor in the narrative arises, however, not from the documentary record but from the narrative gesture of Meynell's fictional Anna Magdalena, whose words these are.
The film, however, does away with the humorous gesture and instead breaks the incident down into several components. First, Bach is greeted on the stairway of his home by an enthusiastic six-year-old daughter who gleefully announces that the gift of the cask has arrived. Then Anna Magdalena narrates the situation with the cousin, recounting facts that are found in the letter. At the same time, Bach's letter is itself shown on the screen in three successive shots.
It concludes with the verbose and formal postscript enumerating the expenses involved, which is the documentary source of the humor. The tensions in this short scene are extreme: The narration in voice-over by Anna Magdalena acts almost as the basso continuo throughout the entire film and functions here as a link to the wider narrative context of remembering Bach's life. The scene starts with the greeting by the.
This, however, is not fictionalized in any way but is merely presented to the viewer in visual, documentary terms. Most viewers will certainly not even be able to read it on the first viewing of the film, and the narration does not call attention to it. Yet here is the narrative counterpart to the performance of the musical pieces that have also been pictured in the film. We see the letter as the physical evidence that the events occurred and are given three avenues of access to the facts: the film narrative, which "imagines" the activity in the Bach household; the process of remembering by way of Anna Magdalena's voice; and finally, the viewer's reading of the letter.
This act of reading is emphasized by the tilts from top to bottom, and the fictionalization is documented as Anna's narration repeats sentences taken from Bach's own text on-screen. Throughout, the film shows no writing of either music or text, only "performances" based on reading.
This connects the film's narrative to the performance by the musicians, which is also an act of reading and recitation from documents that have been interpreted. The music thus produced has an emotional effect, touching both secular and spiritual issues, and this effect is preserved by way of the tensions Turim has described and the counterpoint or layering of their narrative contexts.
Music critics writing about Chronicle , however, have tended to see the emotional content as intrinsic to each piece of music alone. Two critics writing in made detailed comments on the effect of cutting and arranging the selections. Both Friedrich Hommel and Joachim Kaiser recognize the uniqueness of the film's respect for the music and its performance. Kaiser concedes that Straub "succeeded, in pursuing his conception, in achieving musical photography of a restraint and appropriateness hardly seen before. The camera is not transmusically motivated and does not distract with pseudo-virtuosity and optical tricks from the musical material.
The opening chorus of the St. Matthew Passion or the cadenza of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto are allowed to have their effect, as Kaiser puts it, but he finds their juxtaposition with the andante from the Italian Concerto played by Johann Elias Bach "totally superfluous. Hommel sees this as an intentional denial of a "breathing space" for the audience: "Emotions, such as those that are relased through. The screen is to remain pure. The emotional frustration noted by both critics deserves investigation, since it cannot be possible that emotions are simply forbidden.
Instead, there is a definite evocation of emotion in the narrative and in the characters of Johann Sebastian and Anna Magdalena Bach. Neither writer has taken the narration of Anna Magdalena Bach very seriously, despite the attention called to it by the film's title. For instance, the mistakes in the singing of the "Trauer-Musik" aria are lamented, without considering that the woman playing Anna Magdalena, not a professional soprano, is singing on camera. The relation of the musical texts to the narrative is also largely ignored, and the English subtitles do not include them at all. For instance, following an image of Anna Magdalena severely ill in bed and the commentary relating how Bach was summoned home, the film reel ends with a peaceful image of clouds between the tips of two trees.
Jesus: I'm coming, thy share. Soul: I'm waiting with my burning oil. But [Straub] seems to overlook one thing: without interpretation, facts indeed only speak for themselves, or for anyone: Bach's wig would fit a Handel just as well, and no one prevents us in this carefully reconstructed milieu from replacing one Leipzig cantor with another one. Similarly, in even such a faithfully reconstructed interior with house musicians fiddling on old instruments,. We are left with a lack of an easily determined signified, which in effect throws us back to the materiality of the signifier.
Signification is achieved not directly signifier X representing signifieds Y, Z, etc. We need more than one engraving of a town to build the concept of engravings being a form of representation minimally legible to our modern perception, more than one close-up of music to develop the concept of music as a written code, highly formalized, but legible only to musicians. Thus in this segment the montage of these elements emphasizes that this film is as much about the attempt to recover the past through its records as it is about the life of one man, Bach.
It is about antique maps of cities which have since changed, about a script style which is nearly illegible to modern eyes. It is also about the role codes play in communication, about the relationship of musical notation to sounds heard as music. The narrative does not explain these illusive signifiers.
The disjunction instead frustrates our attention, the narration with its own terrorization of the text, its lack of immediate comprehensibility is part of its challenge and meaning. There is no attempt to make Leonhardt look or sound the way Bach might have, as the film studiously avoids "reenactments" of character or historical events.
The images of the documents, the reconstructed or rather, the rediscovered spaces where Bach worked, and even the music itself do not bear any incontestable relation to Bach's life as an individual. Instead, to use Grafe's words, documents "function as evidence, as proof; they are not absorbed by the story. In another story they could testify to something else. This is not just a question for interpretation of historical artifacts but rather has a connection to all the dramas of contemporary life: how can anyone, artist or not, know what will be remem-.
To borrow a phrase from Christa Wolf, one concern of the film is "Was bleibt" what remains. And what remains of Anna Magdalena's life consists mainly of a few lines written in a Bible and the music she copied for her husband. Here, the juxtaposition of musical performances with the invented narrative of Anna Magdalena, the domestic concerns as well as the professional struggles, alternatively puts the emphasis on both. Some of the irony of this narration may be lost to some viewers, since the German texts that are sung are not subtitled, such as the cantata text, "How merrily will I laugh" when the world is falling apart.
The emotional cost of this expenditure is not acted out in the film, nor is the emotion evoked by the acting. The words alone are to convey the professional conflicts and the personal memories, while it is left up to the music and the editing to evoke emotions. The film does not explain what it was about Bach's life that made it possible for him to become a cultural monument. Instead we are confronted with the possibility that, for Bach, perhaps the small pieces composed for Anna Magdalena were just as important as the works for his churches or patrons.
In the film, the large public works were no more important to her. Straub thus would not have been exaggerating when he described the film as a love story. The displacement and concentration of emotions in many aspects of the work are consistent with this description. In this respect, Hommel's complaint that the work resembles a "family album" may not be that far from the filmmakers' intention.
Straub did speak of a scene in one draft of the screenplay where he imagined the Bach family on a picnic, a scene that is included in Meynell's Little Chronicle. Hommel is correct that the usual channeling of the listeners' emotions through applause is impossible due to the relentless pace of the film editing. In addition to the absence of listeners in the film with whom viewers could identify, spatial relations also emphasize the work of performing and inhibit identification with an imagined concert audience.
The camera is most often positioned at an oblique angle to the space toward which the musicians seem to be directing their performance. Camera motion underscores this effect, beginning with the Brandenburg Concerto that opens the film: After Leonhardt's solo cadenza, the camera tracks back to reveal the ensemble that finishes the piece with him. The precision of this motion was only possible with the big. Mitchell camera on tracks, a sharp contrast to the much looser use of zooms by other filmmakers since the s.
At first, with voice-over by Anna Magdalena and then Bach, the camera frames Leonhardt conducting the "Sinfonia" from the organ. Then it tracks back to reveal the musicians and the tenor, who is seen waiting patiently for his entrance. To begin singing, however, the tenor turns shockingly toward a space that was not "real" to the scene up to that point. As in all of their work, the "separation of elements" is a fundamental principle in Chronicle. Straub speaks of the three kinds of "reality" that are accessible where Bach is concerned: "the music, the manuscripts or original texts, and the letters, along with the necrology.
The reality of the traces of Bach's having lived is therefore in tension with the image of Gustav Leonhardt playing the role of Bach. We won't necessarily say to the spectator, "that is Bach. Even in the "points" from Bach's life one will respect the performer of Bach as Mr. The film, the play. He praises the work of Leonhardt because he did not erase all traces of his previous approaches to each scene in developing new ones. Straub's criticism of professional actors is that when they alter their approach, they completely forget what was there before.
Nonprofessionals, apparently because their "natural" actions are more essential to the performance, do not erase these impulses but only suppress them. The use of original instruments is not chosen out of a desire for aesthetic "purity," for example, but, as Straub has said, because "the music of Bach can reach people of today with the greatest force when it is performed with the means that Bach had at his disposal, because these means are actually new to modern people.
Despite the recurring complaints of critics about the "uncinematic" lack of motion in the filmincluding the absurdly revealing phrase "unless one can call making music motion" the action of performance and the risk of accident present in any sustained shot of a demanding performance are precisely what Straub finds as exciting as the early motion pictures. The duration multiplies the quality of chance even more. It's a joke when some say it's a static shot, the camera doesn't move, nothing happens. There is more happening than in a pan, a car chase, or a pursuit.
Every finger is moving, and one even senses the air, and besides, that is the essence of the cinematographer: They say when people saw Le djeuner de bb or L'arroseur arros by Lumire, they didn't cry out: Oh! They said, the leaves are moving in the trees. The bb who moved they had already seem in the magic lantern. What was new for them was precisely that the leaves were moving.
The "leaves" in the Bach film are the fingers and hands of the musicians and the unbelievable gestures of Leonhardt, which are not at all monotonous. Straub has gone so far as to maintain that the reduction of the nondocumentary aspects actually increases the "novelistic" quality. He contrasted the Bach film with Machorka-Muff , in which the inclusion of "reality" was meant to.
Her term is "archaeology. Fiction is very important, in spite of everything, to somehow ignite a fire. Straub: I think what interests us is to show layers. Huillet: not to eradicate traces, but to build on them. The music and the manuscripts presented to the camera and the documentation of the present performance confront the fiction of Anna Magdalena Bach's remembering these images as her husband. The historical memory evoked in the audience by a film about a major cultural figure is juxtaposed in the fiction with the private memory of his wife.
This memory, in turn, resonates with the tension and use of memory involved in any performance.
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The musicians and actors are also acting out a memory, both in performing a past composition in the present and in reciting a memorized text. Suspense is generated because something could go wrong, be lost or forgotten. The fictional confrontation with documentary reality traces the border between present and past, between life and living memory and death. A number of critics have noted this presence of death as a major theme of the film, and this was also an aspect of the Meynell book from which it takes its title. Meynell's Anna Magdalena says, for instance, "All Sebastian's noblest music was evoked by the thought of deaththat used to frighten me a little, now I understand better what was in his heart.
Klaus Eder notes that the shot of informal playing of excerpts from Anna Magdalena Bach's "Notenbchlein" with a small child playing at her feet "is surprising first in its beauty, but also proves an intensive relationship to music in the Bach family; one senses that music belongs to everyday activity. As Eder goes on, The actor of Anna Magdalena reports this in sober, completely unemotional words as if it didn't touch her at all which is true: an actress is speaking the text ; Danile Huillet's editing follows this information with a cantata "Christ lag in Todesbanden" that wrests peace and beauty out of inescapable death.
Straub shows that Bach's music is an answer to his own life, to the good or mostly difficult situations in it; it is the continuation of life by other means. Thus the musical incidents are not only not integrated into the biographical momentone perceives a leap of phenomena just where they seem to stand in causal continuity or proximity.
For instance, when the report of the deaths of two children accompanies the image of Anna at the keyboard with her child playing at her feet, or when the suicide of the CoRector seems to correspond to a Memorial cantata. In Bach's music [Straub] senses everywhere the nearness of death of a cultural late phenomenon, even perhaps something like the Golgotha of occidental music. And only for this reason does Chronicle seem to be photographed so without optical ambition: because he sees incarnations of Bach's music arising everywhere, almost mystically, wherever historical facticity enters the picture.
Perhaps it has escaped him as he mulled over his mystical theme, that with this drift toward death that he uncovers everywhere in the life and music of Bach, he is only varying the popular sentimental theme. The force of the film, however, has to lie in the present. If we are to take Straub's comment seriously, that this is a love story, what does it tell us about the possibilities and limitations of such love and its representation in film? This emotional reaction, I argue, is the result of the unbridgeable juxtaposition of present and past tense in the film, which is also an evocation of mortality and the struggle against itthrough both art and memory.
Feurich has noted, for instance, that a major fictional premise of the film is established in the simple statement of Anna Magdalena at the beginning of the film, "He was. But the viewer's relation to this depiction of the past becomes ambivalent through this doubling of the distance. In Feurich's words,. The past tense, which at first registers her distance from the years in Cthen, soon becomes ambivalent. It also describes the distance from the dead person whom she has outlived and from herself while he was alive: a distance that approaches.
When Anna speaks in the past tense, then she ultimately speaks for us too, in constant ambivalence, because she is only present in a "monotone" voice, quoting, reporting. Schtte notes that the filtering of the image of Bach through Anna Magdalena's memory is consistent with the fact that there is no attempt to represent aging in the presentation of Gustav Leonhardt. This is part of the attempt to preserve the "foreignness" of the past as represented in the film; therefore, as Schtte notes, Bach is not shown composing "but playing music, 'in practice'; no dialogic tension; if there are dialogues, they are treated as blocks placed next to each other.
This, according to Straub, was an evolutionary process of excluding the exchanges between Bach and Anna Magdelena that would have given the illusion of their living in the present. Tension between present and past exists in any block of text, as it does in the performance of music. The distance between the words, their meaning, their origins, their recitation, and the audience is an absolute reality. The variation between professional actors and lay performers will be discussed elsewhere, but regarding these texts, Straub has stressed both the attraction of accents and the difficulty some actors have in pronouncing German.
For instance, in the French version of the Bach film, the on-camera texts are subtitled, but the voice-over narration is spoken in French by the same actress as in the original. Straub said, "I was glad that I could do that. I love accents in film very much. The language is more alive, when it is spoken by someone who has difficulty with it.
Then there are hindrances, which produce a greater veracity. This is not new, since the films of Renoir that encountered the most resistance were also those in which characters spoke with an accent. The film unites two types of resistance: the resistance of the documents against their appropriation partly conveyed by the difficulty of performance and the resistance against death represented by both the life and work of Bach and the act of memory in the fiction of Anna Magdalena.
Straub speaks of the difficulty of "holding the two ends of the chain together: that it is to be my tale about Bach and still not for a moment improbable as the tale of Anna Magdalena Bach. The final crisis was presented in the editing of the last reel. Then we cut the last reel, where the vertigo started again, as if it were a film in itself. Then it fit together and we noticed that we had won a victory.
That is also one of the novelistic aspects of the film, that it tells of a life that burns like a candle. I think a novel recounts a life; the novels of the nineteenth century, the novels of Dostoyevsky and Balzac recounted a destiny. And here one has, perhaps for the first time, a destiny on the screen. The last reel of the film is the proof, that death is the most unnatural thingI mean that literallyin the world. The last reel gets faster and faster: it is a race, a wager against time. And suddenly it is completed, burned up.
In the quotation Marx writes of human production as being an avenue both to essential self-expression and to love: ". Our productions would be as many mirrors from which our essence would shine unto itself. Bach's artistic resistance against death and the constraints of his working conditions complements the resistance of both Anna Magdalena and the authors of the fiction against forgetting. Here, despite his nave disclaimers, Straub makes quite explicit political claims for the role of the film within a leftist understanding of the role of the artist.
And it is good that someone who "represents" Bach should have had nothing to do with what happened in Germany from on, either directly or indirectly. Leonhardt someone who was much more than an intellectual, who had a great sense of childhood and of provocation. These two traits were very important for Bach. He was and is by far the best.
Gustav Leonhardt as Johann Sebastian Bach. And he took on this musical experiment, a risk, without calculating as most intellectuals do before they will even cross the street: "Oh, what a risk, can I run such a risk? The viewer is in the situation of the Leipzig town councilors, who could not have known that they were dealing with the great Bach.
Perhaps it did not interest them. Works of art were not yet sanctified and recognized. Banning Muslims from entering the country? That in itself is an afront to "political correctness. No need to invoke the concept of PC I don't see how one can separate the two. The main basis for my thinking and my comment, though, is personal experience with a friend of mine.
EDIT: My wife calls this effect the better-immigrant syndrome, as in: my group of immigrants is superior to that other group of immigrants. Very interesting comment. I myself have never encountered anything like that, but that doesn't mean much. I haven't lived in the U. We had several immigrant families, but no immigrant groups. The town was just too small for that. None of the families ever considered themselves to be better than the others.
They were all just Americans. Es geht nicht nur ums better-immigrant syndrome, sondern auch um den Schutz von Migranten. Scharia geht vor. Nicht zuletzt fliehen viele vor dem Islam. Has DT issued an executive order to protect Moslem, or any other, immigrants? If he has, where can I read about it? Genau deshalb habe ich "unkontrolliert" geschrieben. Habe ich offenbar nicht genug eindeutig geschrieben. Like SD3, I perceived 42 as a bit of a non-sequitur and 45 has not clarified this for me : I do not quite see how this ties in with the thread topic.
Presumably we are missing some relevant pieces of context or some intermediate steps in a longer thought process. If so, it would be advantageous to share those additional bits and highlight the connection. Responding to wupper's point, I can attest to the lack of organization in the Democratic Party, at least in We had an exchange student living with us at the time, and she had to complete a certain number of volunteer hours during her stay. She had the idea that she would like to volunteer for the Clinton campaign.
She wanted to learn more about the election process and American democracy, and I think she was genuinely excited that a woman could be president. We tried to connect with the Clinton campaign, but were unable to do so. It's possible we would have been able to do so through Facebook, but neither of us is on it. I was pretty sure that the campaign's apparent lack of interest in volunteers and the dearth of Clinton signs in town, boded ill for the Democrats in Michigan, and I was right. And the Trump signs around town were bigger. I am fairly certain that my exchange student would have managed to connect with the Obama campaign in either and Clinton wouldn't have had to win very many votes in Wisconsin and Michigan to carry those two states and win the electoral college and the election.
It was a sloppy campaign run by people who thought their candidate was entitled to win. And this despite the fact that Clinton lost the primary to Sanders in both Wisconsin and Michigan. Clinton lost Michigan in the general election by. She lost here by 11, votes. But Tom Bossert, the former White House homeland security adviser, said on the same show that suggestions that Trump was compromised by Russia were a "cheap shot. Contrasting Putin's background as a former KGB agent who uses "penny-ante spy tactics" with Trump's as a former businessman, Bossert said, "We spend our time trying to have productive meetings with foreign leaders.
All the rest of this speculation and smoke is meant to undermine the President. It's domestic partisan political concern mixed with some legitimate need to throw our intelligence forces against the prevention of spying and interfering in the United States. Europa ist ein Nebenschauplatz.
Anders gefragt: Haben die Amerikaner hier im Faden das aus amerikanischen Medien erfahren? Ich habe davon in den hiesigen amerikanischen Medien nichts mitbekommen, bin aber vielleicht nicht so allseitig informiert wie andere Linksteichler hier. Zu intensives Nachrichtenstudium in der heutigen Zeit macht depressiv. Ich kann mich momentan aber nicht an den Namen des Vordenkers erinnern, der ihn angeblich inspiriert hat; der Name ist nicht so bekannt. Von daher verwundert mich diese Neuigkeit wenig.
Was der Typ so alles 'approved'. Sometimes I think that defense secretary Mattis is the only person left to block Mr. Trump's path toward actual military confrontation, and his influence seems to be waning. I find that scary. On the other hand, Mr. Trump so far seems to be following an "all bark, no bite" strategy regarding global conflicts. If someone has better luck reading the political tea leaves, please enlighten us.
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It is very hard to tell whether there is a "method to the madness". There is a fine line between acting like a madman and actually being a bona fide madman. Some of DJT's online temper tantrums seem genuine and spontaneous, others appear to be more calculated and orchestrated. His ego demands that he is on the news every day, and offensive tweets are a surefire way to achieve that he plays the media like a fiddle in that respect. Otherwise that fine line would have been crossed long ago, I think. Nixon was the "original" madman, and he drank. Would be glad to learn of any reliable information to the contrary, though.
It's just sex and ego gratification with him. There is a saying that most teetotalers are "trockene Alkoholiker" alcoholics who manage by not drinking There is a saying that most teetotalers are "trockene Alkoholiker" alcoholics who manage by not drinking. I doubt there is any research that backs that up, and, as a saying, it is clearly insulting to the many people who choose not to drink alcohol for religious reasons or simply out of personal conviction. Wie lange es wohl noch dauern wird, bis wir bei uns z. It would be huge news if the US and Europe ever agreed to get to the zero tariffs, zero subsidies and zero barriers standard that both leaders proposed on Wednesday.
Ich sehe das als ein auf Zeit Spielen von Juncker. Umweltstandards sind verschieden. Mal sind sie in den USA strenger, mal in Europa. Es ist schwer vorstellbar, dass eine Seite ihre Umweltstandards verringern wird. Das wird die andere dann aber als Barriere ansehen. Das Trump'sche Einigungen relativ detailfrei sind, hat man doch schon bei den Verhandlungen mit Nordkorea gesehen. Einen Handelskrieg anzetteln um damit ein Freihandelsabkommen durchzupressen, dass bei den Menschen also nicht Wirtschaft oder Regierungen vorsichtig formuliert 'nicht so gut' angekommen ist. Das nenn ich doch mal eine neue Strategie.
In meinem doch schon recht langen Leben habe ich diese Strategie immer dann erlebt, wenn es darum ging, unliebsame Wahrheiten nicht ganz unter den Tisch zu kehren, frei nach dem Motto: Wir haben es ja berichtet. Diese sind irgendwie verschwunden, vielleicht weil am Bodensee so viele Reiche wohnen, die sich nicht gerne ihr Trinkwasser versauen lassen wollen. Wie so Vieles. Auf die die EU gerne verzichtet. Es wurde nur vereinbart, dass miteinander gesprochen wird. Ja, auch solche Themen werden eine Rolle spielen, aber entschieden ist da nach meinem Eindruck noch gar nichts. Also gibt es auch nichts zu berichten.
Hab aber auch nicht zu intensiv nachgeschaut. Vielleicht ist die die von ihm ungewollte Chance es seitens der WU besser zu machen. Im Grundsatz sind die Bedenken von Euch schon berechtigt, aber ein Handelsabkommen wird nicht mit einem Treffen zwischen Junker und Trump vereinbart.
Daraus ergibt sich auch, dass eine ganze Reihe von Staaten Vorbehalte angemeldet haben und dass manche Vereinbarungen, z. Das wird wahrscheinlich auch die einzige kurzfristige Folge einer Vereinbarung sein. Auslernen gibt's nicht. Kommentare zum Thema gefunden:. Wenn auch hier die Endverbraucher dagegen sind und die Firmen die Sojaprodukte nicht loswerden, werden sie auch kein Soja kaufen - egal was DT fordert. Seine Leute glauben es ihm, weil er es gesagt hat. Und er wurde als Handels Du klingst etwas aggressiv.
Ich kann, sobald ich ein bisschen Luft habe, versuchen rauszubekommen, wer genau das war. Es ist hier nachzulesen:. This is a terrible situation and Attorney General Jeff Sessions should stop this Rigged Witch Hunt right now, before it continues to stain our country any further. Apparently Mr. Trump forgot that Mr.
Sessions recused himself from this investigation, so he cannot stop it. It proceeds under the leadership of Mr. Rosenstein, who seems to have the level of integrity I would expect from someone in his position, as he has not budged despite constant attacks from Mr. Trump and his allies in Congress. As I recall, Ken Starr worked as independent counsel for four years before wrapping up his investigation.
I see no reason not to grant Mr. Mueller the same time frame for his if that is what he needs. Wie der Artikel richtig sagt, braucht man den beim Einkaufen eigentlich nur, wenn man Alkohol kauft. Yes, another one of DT's top campaign officials donning prison garb does not bode well for him This article provides a glimpse of the process by which the Republican Party is turning into the Trump Party:.
The message being sent by Republican voters is clear: They want more Trumps, not fewer. The President was the leading edge of a movement fueled by anger and disappointment with Washington, not its conclusion. Poll after poll shows that Trump is among the most popular modern presidents among his own party. Republican voters love how much Trump is willing to freak out the establishment -- even within his own party.
Fortunately, it's not all unadulterated bad news, Norbert.
Here's the latest Gallup survey on party affiliation:. Republicans are running third behind Democrats and - by a significant margin - behind Independents. Yes, I am aware that when it actually gets to the election Independents can break either way, but for a variety of reasons I think it less likely they'll favor DT. I have been part of that "mighty" block of independents ever since I became a citizen. It has not fluctuated much in between either, looking over the complete data set. Since this covers the Bush, Obama, and Trump administrations, I don't think one can say that independents lean strongly one way or the other.
I took note of Ms. Whitman's remarks when she made them several days ago. But she is part of the group of classic Republicans that is being pushed out by Trump's followers. Her power to move things in the Republican Party is approaching zero right now. Am seltensten ist eine nationalkonservative Haltung. Und 16 Prozent sehen sich als rechts. Juni , denn der Bericht ist auf den 6. Ich finde auch nichts bei Google Scholar, mit dessen Umgang ich viel Erfahrung habe. I don't know what to make of this kerfluffle with Manigault Newman.
Initially I wasn't interested in the least. But then I read some recent Gezwitscher from "the currently elected president of the United States" to quote a tour guide : People in the White House hated her. She was vicious, but not smart. I would rarely see her but heard When Gen. I told him to try working it out, if possible, because she only said GREAT things about me - until she got fired!
Let's summarize here: I heard she was doing a bad job, but I told them to try to keep her on staff because she said GREAT things about me. You don't even have to read many of his tweets to be able to tell when one wasn't written by a staffer. It puts him in such a bad light, but he is apparently unable to tell that. The sad thing about this current administration is that you can't believe anything at all that comes out of there. I don't know much about Ms. Newman, but the more I read about and from her, the less I like her. She looks like she's just trying to cash in on having been a minor player in the WH for 15 minutes, and having been on the "Apprentice" before that and thus having gained an "insider's" knowledge of Trump's inner workings.
I wish I could just skip the next three years and live in a different universe. My experience in industry was that corporate culture is basically determined by the behavior of the person heading the organization. The same seems to apply to the White House. With a pathological liar and master manipulator at the top, we now have an administration full of similar personalities. A bunch of backstabbing schemers, eager to spread falsehoods and leaking to the press on a grand scale to further their objectives.
Some of Ms. Manigault-Newman's accusations are plausible and likely true, but it is exceedingly hard to tell which of her statements are truths, which are exaggerations, and which are outright lies. I am sure that Manigault Newman is self-serving and will exaggerate and lie if she deems it helpful. But I am equally sure that her accusations of cult like behaviour inside the WH and of racism experienced by her is not a lie.
I think Ms. Newman is simply "making a quick buck" from her past in the WH What confuses me is that all the Presidents shenanigans are analysed in terms of strategy and deeper meanings. There is no strategy and there are no deeper meanings. DT is just doing and saying what pops up in his mind. Kneeling footballplayers and nuclear crisis with North Korea - all of the same importance.
Normal reaction would be to ignore this moron - however he has the most powerful military in the world. BTW: In English, adjectives of nationality are always capitalized. Not doing so seems very german to me. Irony intended. There is nothing wrong with making a quick buck - a talent that other nations lack. My thoughts exactly. But, having been on his stupid "Apprentice," show, and having been fired there three times previously, I'm pretty sure that she knew who she was dealing with and was arming herself.
Er sprach von "gesellschaftsfeindlichem Verhalten" in der Industrie, nannte jedoch keine Firmen. Looks like I am in Stereotype Central this morning :- 1 Nations don't have talents, people do. Hint: Try substituting adjectives of other groups of people for "American" and see whether that statement still sounds like "just an observation". I don't think making a "quick buck" clearly has negative connotations.
I've made a quick buck in my life occasionally, and without there being anything negative about it. It simply means you didn't have to work or haggle very hard or long for it. Maybe you thought something could be a tough sell and it went surprisingly easy and quick instead. It happens. I do think Americans love making quick bucks. The US is, after all, the citadel of capitalism. People around the world have dreamed of coming here to make lots of money for centuries. And whereas Europe and other places pride themselves on their philosophers, artists, thinkers, etc.
It's all about money here, even in our public school systems another sad story that could take up lots of space on LEO if we let it. I was ready to throw in a stereotype about people from Southern California here, but reconsidered :- There are about million Americans as in: American citizens. I think it is beyond silly to tar them all with one brush. I would argue that people like Bezos, Gates, Buffet, Zuckerberg and especially all the young IT billionaires have made some of the quickest bucks ever, and continue to do so.
What's the negative connotation there, in your view? Edith sez that even just an athlete, actor, or or other artist signing a multi-million dollar deal would fall under that category. One day you're poor as dirt, the next day you have a luxus villa with a pool and five Ferraris in the garage. That happens, too.
Always to others, though, unfortunately. I don't think Mr. Buffet belongs in a "quick bucks" category, as he built his wealth slowly and methodically over about 75 years: the son of a grocery store owner, he supposedly bought hist first stock at the age of Is the question about negative connotations a rhetorical one? I assume you are not unfamiliar with charges of anti-competitive behavior against Microsoft, such as browser bundling that lead to Mr.
Gates having to testify before Congress in I assume you are likewise familiar with the fact that Mr. Zuckerberg recently had to testify before Congress in the case of Cambridge Analytica. These hearings involved at a minimum cases of skirting ethics. I am actually of the belief that for every tycoon or billionaire, there are hundreds if not thousands of people that were conned, stepped on, cheated out of, ripped off, etc. It's the nature of competition, of getting ahead, and consequently of capitalism.
Wasn't it P. Barnum about years ago who said that there's a sucker born every minute? Ethics seem to have no place in business, certainly not today, and they probably never did thinking of Vanderbilt, Rothschild, Carnegie, Astor and so many other business tycoons throughout not only American history. On the other hand, if we accept the fact that competition exists and that it is ruthless more often than not, we have to kind of accept that these dotcom billionaires are living the American dream to the hilt and have come by their success relatively honestly - at least in the American business sense.
As far as Gates and Zuckerberg go, their tribulations really aren't that different than say, what the Waltons Walmart , the Koch brothers, or any of those other billionaire businesses have gone through or still go through. It seems to be all part of doing business and making lots of money. And as far as Buffet goes, sure, he may have been at it for 75 years, but assuming he really does have a net worth of 87 billion dollars the latest figures I can find , he's still made more than a billion dollars a year on average.
That's close to million a month, or roughly grand an hour if you figure he worked a lot of overtime to achieve this. That's a whole lotta money in a very short time, if you ask me. I don't know about you, but it would take me and probably most everyone else several if not many lifetimes to generate that kind of wealth. So to me, his wealth still has come very quickly. Perhaps in certain circles who rightfully critizise the side effects of total capitalism. However the US was in a large part founded by people with certain religious ideas, e.
Not for everybody of course but still for a large part. I have only the outsider perspective on this matter but I have met american colleagues and friends that share this view. And in general: national stereotypes are something to overcome - but they did not pop up from the void. Historical perspective should not be overlooked. The most common religious denomination in the US today is? Generally speaking, accumulation of wealth is not considered something to be ashamed of in the US: there is not much class envy around here.
If people learn that you did well financially, they might respond with "Good for you". A good portion of us certainly take a much dimmer view of those just out to make a quick buck, while others apparently don't give a hoot; see this thread What national stereotypes would you suggest we overcome, and which historical perspectives should we make sure not to overlook? Please advise. As for the national stereotypes to overcome: I think it is very clear that all stereotypes that lead to discrimination should be overcome. Examples: Italians are mobsters - they are not of course but the main part or core of the Mafia was italian when they ruled certain parts of cities.
It is a historical fact and negating it is faking history. And of course you are certainly familiar with the stereotypes concerning Jews. Die Editorials schreibt jede Zeitung individuell. This website claims:. In the last presented year , there were 1, daily newspapers in the United States, down from 1, in Kavanaugh cleared a key procedural vote on Friday.
Joe Manchin, a red state Democrat facing a touch re-election battle in West Virginia, was the only Democrat to break from his party and back the judge. Es hat etwas Gruselkabinett-artiges. Ich meine, sollen sie doch ihre Prinzipien und ihre Institutionen den Bach runter gehen lassen wegen mir. Ein weiterer, trauriger Tiefpunkt amerikanischer Politik. Im allgemeinen sind Proteste, Petitionen, usw. Den Wortlaut ihrer Rede findet man hier:. Side remark: Public discussions of women's dress, hair, or makeup annoy me terribly unless it directly relates to their job, e.
I'd rather focus on what job-related things they do and say. My philosophy is that reasonable people can reasonably disagree on many contentious issues. I have respect for thoughtful politicians of above average integrity, even if I don't agree with their positions. In my thinking, based on watching proceedings in the U. Senate for many years, senator Collins is such as politician.
I don't consider people brave or heroes simply because their conclusions match mine, and I don't consider them cowards because they come to a different conclusion. I want to see politicians that ponder the issues and draw their own conclusions, not simply follow a party line plenty of those among both Democrats and Republicans. I have stated before that I think senator Feinstein should have retired we need generational change in the Washington crowd , and I think she handled the Blasey-Ford allegations in a suboptimal manner.
But looking at her challenger in the upcoming election, I think she will win re-election rather easily. Dass der Prozess als solcher rechtlich korrekt abgelaufen ist, finde ich mit Blick auf die deutsche Geschichte ein schwieriges Argument. Talking to my Brazilian friends and seeing what they write and share online, I fear that today's vote may be no more sensible. There are too many people to whom Lula has brought economic success who now suffer from the economic crisis, and they believe Bolsonaro's simple and simplistic promises What about Chuck Grassley and Mr.
They aren't exactly spring chickens 85, 76 resp. And they did play a much bigger role to put it mildly than Feinstein in getting the new judge on the bench. Why don't they resign? If we're going to be bemoaning old politicians clinging to power, that is Not something that I, as a Californian, are called upon to ponder. However, at this time I think it is time for her to step aside as she has become ineffective. Apparently she disagrees Nine people are confirmed dead as a result of the Camp Fire in Northern California, which spread with unprecedented speed. DJT's compassionate response:.
There is no reason for these massive, deadly and costly forest fires in California except that forest management is so poor. Billions of dollars are given each year, with so many lives lost, all because of gross mismanagement of the forests. Remedy now, or no more Fed payments! I can only hope there is a hell and that it has a special corner reserved for the likes of DJT. The facts:. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection, by comparison, manages a little more than 30 percent.
Forest Service budgets dedicated to the kind of tree clearing and other forest management work experts say is needed. I saw a report yesterday by someone who lives in the area. He stated: Around the origin of the Camp Fire, there was only sparse forest and there were no issues with overgrown brush, which got cleared by a fire a few years back. Massive amounts of forest undergrowth due to lack of forest management is a problem in some parts of California, but apparently not in this case. This person reported that 40 mph winds drove embers from the Camp Fire horizontally, in a ground-hugging layer at least the height of a person, allowing the fire to hop up to a mile at a time.
And it will probably be more unfavorable going forward, as changes to SALT deductibility kick in for the tax year. Though apparently in the current dryer climate, people who live in or near forests or brushy areas do indeed need to do a lot more cutting of brush and creating a wider perimeter around their houses, even if it means sacrificing trees. That was one of the sad realizations in the Bastrop area, east of Austin, after the fire there a few years ago. The people who moved out there to live in the middle of the trees simply hadn't realized the risk of having them so close to their houses.
But that doesn't mean either the US Forest Service or the state agencies, both struggling under reduced budgets, should necessarily have to do it for them. I would think that conservatives would be all in favor of letting individuals shoulder their own risk.
Though part of the problem is that these risks today are suddenly more extreme, and less uncommon, than anyone had previously imagined. I wish I thought that with more disasters like this, local governments were getting better able to predict danger and order evacuations, but I can imagine that many small towns in remote areas just don't have that kind of resources. Another reason to mourn the state and federal funding that once helped more with research and prevention. The point about the recent tax law reducing not only corporate taxes, but also individual deductions for SALT state and local taxes , is an interesting one.
One recent article points out that some of the Republican disappointments in wealthy suburbs seem to correlate with people unhappy about losing the larger SALT deduction. Trump seems to have targeted that federal tax increase at 'blue states' with high taxes, such as NY and CA, but it ended up hitting Republican voters not only there but also in NJ and the DC suburbs. I don't whether anyone is still interested in links to background articles about the current administration, or able to access them. But just in case, I previously posted a few in the CC one day when I was unable to post in this thread.
Siehe auch: Crossover Chat - The one about a company taking over local TV stations was particularly sobering. I'm curious now how many of those opinion-dominated markets were in regions that stayed redder than expected this election cycle. If you look at a satellite picture of Paradise, CA on Google Maps, it i easy to understand why the town became a total loss once the fire reached it.
The way it was set up, it never really stood a chance. And with embers supposedly being driven by wind for distances up to a mile, one would have to surround such towns with a bulldozed "dead zone" a mile wide.
The current fires in Southern California are in urban areas, and there is basically no forest of any kind involved, best I understand. Climate change is creating new challenges: First rains should have come in late October, but nothing so far and it looks like November might be total dry as well. No precipitation in the ten-day forecast. We may be looking at another drought year.
I don't know what the response should be. Abandon many human settlements around California as basically indefensible in case of a wildfire? Supposedly soot from the record-breaking fire around Clear Lake earlier this year reached New York and even Greenland. Not sure how reliable these tidbits are e. I sometimes retain notes about stuff I read but not all the time.
In Deutschand z. Dazu braucht es keinen Klimawandel. Oder keine Stauseen in den Sierras, usw. Nicht unbedingt. Es gibt seit Jahrzehnten Meerwasserentsalzungsanlagen. Above a threshold elevation of to feet, it overflowed into the San Joaquin River. This happened in 19 of 29 years from to No overflows occurred after due to increasing diversions of tributary waters for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses, and by , the lake was dry except for residual wetlands and occasional floods.
Keine geschlossene Bodenvegation Gras wie in einer Trockensteppe. The ostensible reason for the sudden cancellation: rain. This is about as much as effort as one can expect from Cadet Bone Spurs. Google Translate renders this into English in a reasonable way based on my minimal knowledge of French :- :. For patriotism is the exact opposite of nationalism: nationalism is treason.
By saying "our interests first and what do the others matter! Macrons Bemerkungen zu Patriotismus und Nationalismus waren m. An denen das, genau wie am "orange Cheeto", wirkungs- und eindruckslos vorbeigehen wird. That's more than 6 times as many as in There's a large number of asylum-seekers this year as well, with 1, Americans requesting refuge in Canada through the end of August. Canadian officials said that while Canada remains an open, welcoming country, crossing into it is not "a ticket for permanent residence.
Es geht gerade durch die deutschen und vermutlich auch durch die amerikanischen Medien, dass die CIA Erkenntnisse hat, die nahelegen, dass der saudische Kronprinz Salman den Mord am Journalisten Khashoggi angeordnet hat. Inhaltlicher ist das aus meiner Sicht nicht besonders sensationell, aber ich frage mich - mal vorausgesetzt, die Meldung stimmt -, ob es normal ist, dass derartig brisante Informationen an die Presse geraten.
Okay, ich habe meine Frage offensichtlich falsch gestellt. Somit ist es auch nicht die Aufgabe eines Geheimdienstes, solche Erkenntnisse an die Presse weiterzuleiten. Es ist aber vermutlich trotzdem passiert. Kann gut sein. Nicht, dass die amerikanischen Geheimdienste immer richtig liegen. Das tun sie nicht. Aber warum sollte diese Informationen geheim bleiben? DT stellt aber diese Erkenntnisse in Frage. Und das ist nicht das erste Mal.
Nein, das ist kein gutes Zeichen. Siehe Watergate, Deep Throat, usw. Du hast ja eine hohe Meinung von Geheimdiensten, wupper! Das scheint mir aber eine etwas einseitige Sichtweise. Vermutlich wird das auch in Zukunft so bleiben, aber ganz theoretisch ist es ja auch denkbar, dass sich mal jemand mit etwas verquerem Weltbild oder gar unlauteren Absichten durch die Hierarchien des FBI mogelt. Ach so. Du meinst jemanden wie J. Vor allem die CIA ist ein Geheimdienst, da liegt das Interesse wohl allgemein eher daran, gewisse Sachen geheim zu halten und im Geheimen zu agieren.
Und das ist keine politische Nutzung? Erstens wartete Khashoggis Verlobte 12 oder so Stunden auf ihn - vergeblich.